Wrenthorpe Colliery 5: summer of strikes and enlisting

The colliery closed in 1900 but reopened seven years later, trading as part of the Low Laithes Colliery Company Limited.

Shortly before the outbreak of the First World War the mine was called which lasted for much of the summer. It’s traced in the Yorkshire newspapers.

Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer
Saturday 6 June 1914

STRIKE AT A WAKEFIELD PIT

The employees, numbering between 1,200 and 1,300 at Wrenthorpe Colliery, Wakefield (Low Laithes Colliery Company), have now been out strike over week, and the pit ponies have been drawn out. The sudden cessation of work arose through the men at the coal face being requested to hew coal to the depth of one yard six inches instead of one yard ten and a half or eleven inches, as before. This, the men contended, was contrary to the existing agreement. The management, on the other hand, confess that they are somewhat a loss to understand the attitude of the men below ground. It is understood that a deputation of the Yorkshire Miners’ Association will interview the management on Monday with the view of arriving at a settlement of the trouble.

Sheffield Daily Telegraph
Saturday 13 June 1914

STRIKE WRENTHORPE PIT

At an adjourned meeting, yesterday, of the employees of the Wrenthorpe Colliery, Wakefield, who have been strike about a fortnight, the question of returning to work on the old conditions in accordance with the offer of the management was further considered. In the course of the meeting, however, it was stated that the deputies had gone on strike for an increase in wages, and this practically broke up the meeting. Deputies’ pickets were afterwards put out in the neighbourhood of the pit. It would thus appear that the settlement of the trouble is now as remote as ever.

Leeds Mercury
Thursday 18 June 1914

WAKEFIELD MINERS’ STRIKE

The strike at Wrenthorpe Colliery, near Wakefield, still continues. Yesterday pickets of the miners met the surfacemen on their way to work and endeavoured to persuade them to stay away and throw in their lot with the strikers. In some cases they were successful. Out of the sixty-one top men who went to work Monday, fewer than a score remain.

By mid-June the colliery’s owners came up with a tactic to break the strike. They issued summons to about half the pit’s workers, suing them for breach of contract, as they left work without giving 14 days’ notice.

Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer
Monday 22 June 1914

THE COLLIERY STRIKE: NEARLY 600 SUMMONSES

Arising out the strike at the Wrenthorpe Colliery of the Low Laithes Colliery Company, several weeks ago, through which between 1,200 and 1,300 men and boys have been rendered idle, summonses have been served 583 of the employees for breach of contract, and these are returnable before the county magistrates to-day.

Our Wakefield correspondent learns that as the strikers allege the management have been guilty of a breach of agreement requesting the men hew six inches less coal than formerly (thus throwing wrong the prices list agreed upon), it is the intension of the Yorkshire Miners’ Association to make it a test case for the whole the county.

The Yorkshire Evening Post describes the scenes as the miners marched from the Colliery Newton Bar to the Court in Wood Street. And the union’s trump card – to file a counter claim.

Yorkshire Evening Post
Monday 22 June 1914

MINERS’ PROCESSION TO POLICE COURT
WRENTHORPE STRIKE SEQUEL
OVER 500 COLLIERS SUMMONED AT WAKEFIELD

Strange scenes were witnessed at Wakefield to-day in connection with the prosecution of 583 miners, employees at the Wrenthorpe Colliery, where a strike progress. As early as eight o’clock the summoned miners, with their womenfolk and children, and other sympathisers, gathered the gates the Wrenthorpe Pit, which is owned by the Low Laithes Colliery Company (Limited).

Two hours later several thousand people had assembled. The men passed the time by cheering and enthusiastically greeting various prominent “deputies” and leaders as they arrived on the spot, and subsequently a brass band attended, and a procession was formed, and headed by the band and the branch banners of the Yorkshire Miners’ Association marched into the town via Northgate.

Interested crowds of people lined the route, and when the procession reached Wood Street there was soon a crowd of many thousands outside the West Riding Court House. A large force of police officers was in the vicinity, but there was no disorder. The miners cheered lustily, and then the procession broke up, the summoned men filing into the Court House in an orderly manner.

By the time the defendants were accommodated the court was crowded. Mr Percy Tew, the Deputy-Lieutenant of the County, presided on the Bench, and among those present the well of the court was Major Atcherley, Chief Constable of the West Riding.

Mr G E Blakeley, solicitor, of Dewsbury, prosecuted; and Mr A W Willey, of Leeds, appeared for the defence.

Mr Blakeley said the summonses had been issued under the Employer and Workman Act of 1875 against 583 workmen, and the claim in respect of each was a sum of £3 for damages sustained by the company in consequence the breach of contract by the various defendants leaving work without giving the necessary fourteen days’ notice.

OBJECTIONS TO THE SUMMONSES

Mr Arthur Willey submitted that the summons and the claims were bad, because they were deficient, not giving the date of the alleged breach of contract. It was true, he was informed, the contract was broken by notice not having been given; but some of the men had worked at the colliery for fifteen or twenty years.

How could he file a counter-claim on behalf of any one of those men? Any counter-claim filed two days before the hearing the case, and it was impossible to do it on particulars which he had not got.

“I am,” he added, “acting for nearly 600 men in regard to a dispute which has been going since May 21. People who bring 500 people here indiscriminately ought to let me have full particulars. These men work in different shifts. Thirty of them have prodded me with medical certificates to prove their inability work on certain dates, but how can I produce them when I do not know the date on which they are accused of breaking the contract?”

QUESTION OF COUNTER-CLAIM

The claim was too general, he added, and was entitled particulars and an adjournment to give him an opportunity of counter-claiming.

“With regard to the men having broken a contract,” he observed, “the plaintiffs have broken theirs, but I cannot yet frame my counter-claim, etc. As a matter of fact, one man who is summoned has not worked at this pit for two years. (Laughter.) Another man has never worked there in his life.” (Loud laughter.)

The gist of the claim, Mr Willey also said, was for damages. The plaintiffs were asking for fifteen or sixteen hundred pounds’ damages, and these would have to be proved because the magistrates could not give them “moral and intellectual” damages. (Laughter).

Mr Blakeley said one knew better than the defendants, the date on which they deliberately “threw down”, and that it was the unvariable rule and law to give 14 days’ notice, and when the notice was not given that it was open for the colliery company to sue for damages. The defendants also knew that the damages meant 5s. a day for twelve days following May 26th, the date on which they struck work. There was no reason at all why, if they had any, the defendants should not have put in counter-claims, without single date.

AN ADJOUBNMENT GRANTED

Mr Willey said he expected the date to have been June 8, because there was a week of negotiations after May 26. There was also a settlement after that, but other circumstances arose and the negotiations came to nothing.

The Chairman said the magistrates did not think the summonses were legally bad. The Court could amend them and give leave to the defendants to put counter-claims, but, under the circumstances, they thought it would seem fairer to allow an adjournment.

Mr Willey: It is extremely probable I shall have 500 counter-claims to file and that means good deal of clerical work and time.

After a consultation between the solicitors the case was adjourned until Thursday, July 2nd.

A further adjournment was agreed in court in early July and by the 10th of that month, it was reported that the miners had gone back to work.

Sheffield Daily Telegraph
Friday 10 July 1914

RETURN TO WORK

The miners at the Wrenthorpe colliery, Wakefield, who have been on strike for about six weeks are to resume work. They complain of the very little financial support they have received from miners in other districts.

After a consultation between the solicitors the case was adjourned until Thursday, July 2nd.

Less than four weeks later Britain was at war and Wrenthorpe Colliery miners were keen to enlist.

Leeds Mercury
Tuesday 8 September 1914

MINERS TO THE FORE

Eighty-four miners from Wrenthorpe Colliery, near Wakefield, have joined the colours, and about 100 have gone from Park Hill Colliery.

Wrenthorpe Colliery 4: union officials take swipe at Bishop of Wakefield

Less than six months after the presentation of the silver tray to colliery owner, W T Marriott, local miners are embroiled in the first ever national miners’ strike. Colliery owners had passed on falls in the price of coal to their workers’ by slashing wages. Lock-outs took place as miners’ rejected this erosion in living standards.

The first of these two pieces from September 1893 is about a strike breaker at Wrenthorpe. It was published only a couple of days before the Featherstone Massacre.

Yorkshire Evening Post
Tuesday 5 September 1893

AN INDISCREET NON-STRIKER

To-day a large number of people made their way towards Wrenthorpe Colliery (Mr W T Marriott’s), expecting that there might a scene consequent upon the action of a byeworkman employed at that pit. It seems that it was arranged when the lock-out took place that two of the byeworkmen should continue working in order to attend to the pumps. The miners, we are informed on good authority, thoroughly approved of this course, but one of the individuals in question has acted in a very indiscreet manner. It is said that he has not only jeered at those who are out work, but has gone [to] the length of exhibiting in the window of his house piece of beef with words attached to the effect that they could strike who liked, but that was going provide for his wife and children. The result has been that has been accompanied to and from his work by an improvised concertina band and a large crowd of women and children. Affairs became so threatening last night that a number of policemen were sent escort him home, and the feelings of the people have been so aroused that the individual in question deemed it advisable to absent himself from work to-day.

Finally, a great piece of journalism from the London Daily News (republished in the Irish Independent). It not only gets to grips with the hardships caused by the pay reduction and strike but also the factors behind the glut of coal and drop in productivity of the skilled miners. And three union officials from Wrenthorpe Colliery heavily criticise the Bishop of Wakefield for interfering in the dispute.

Irish Independent
Saturday 16 September 1893

THE COAL STRIKE

(FROM THE DAILY NEWS SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT)
Wakefield, Thursday Evening

In so far as I have been able to judge from a visit to Featherstone, Newtown [sic], Stanley Village, Outwood, Wrenthorpe, Castleford, Normanton, and other places in the district of which Wakefield is the centre, Normanton, Featherstone, and Castleford are those in which the pressure of poverty is the most severe. No more in this than in other districts are there are any signs of what one understands by excitement. The scores of collieries that one passes are silent and deserted. The men are, as they call it, at “play”. In outward appearance the strike region is as dull and decorous as Gower Street. There is no picturesqueness about it. A stranger forgetting the day of the week would imagine it was Sunday. That is only the outward show, but in every miner’s house I have been in to-day there is either great poverty or all but positive starvation. The families that suffer most are naturally those to which no strike pay comes.

A miner’s wife told me in her house to-day at Newton Hill that she had only had four fires in the last fortnight. “It is fortunate for us,” she said, “that this is not the winter time. If it were winter we should perish of cold.” At several of the collieries which I have passed grown-up people and young children were searching the pit rubbish for fuel. “There is none to be had if we had money to buy it with,” says a miner’s wife, who tells me that she has just been compelled to sell foe fifteen shillings a sofa which not long ago cost three pounds. She and her family have for the last two or three days been reduced to a little dry bread once a day. Every family in the little street where she lives depends on the strike money doled out once a week. I find that, as a rule, this dole runs out one or two days before the weekly distribution.

In their treatment of their poor customers the small shopkeepers display not merely much forbearance, but a great deal of self-sacrificing at charity. The mistress of a small shop tells me that 15 miners’ wives who in ordinary times are fairly well off and free from debt, have called open her within the space of three hours for relief. Many of these small shopkeepers are very badly off in consequence of the continence of the strike. “This strike has stopped my business,” says a miner’s widow, who in London would be called charwoman. She used to assist her neighbours in various household duties, earning in this way 7s or 8s a week. Bat now, as all the families are idle, there is nothing for her to do, and she depends for her scanty subsistence on the kindness of her neighbours, who are themselves in sore straits.

Near Wrenthorpe Colliery I met miner who was carrying two loaves rolled up in a napkin for the relief of his daughter, a widow with five children. “They ate their last meal yesterday,” he said and I am going to let them have this,” tapping his parcel. Two of the worst cases I have come across are in Newton village. Two houses in it have twenty-three inhabitants between them, counting parents and children, and the weekly dole of “strike brass” is their only means of living.

I have spoken with many miners whose worst hardships began long before the strike – men who, though willing to work, could not get more than one day’s or two days’ work out of the six. One man tells me that several times during the last sixteen weeks he has come home at the week’s end with less than six shillings. “And I am not man,”’ says he, “to spend a farthing in drink.” Says another miner – “I have not seen the colour of a sovereign in my pay since Christmas, and I could tell you many who could say the same thing themselves.” The miners as a class declare that they are not better off now than they were in 1888 [five years before], before the rise began.

I have had a conversation this afternoon on this particular matter with three miners who hold official positions at the Wrenthorpe Colliery. “What,” they ask, “is the good of the higher rate if our chances of earning it are so small? There are too many hands after the 40 per cent rise since 1888. Since that year 40,000 new hands have come to work is the mines of a few counties, and there is not enough for us all.” One the three condemned very strongly what the miners call “indirect reductions” and the unfairness of compelling skilled miners to take unskilled hands into their “partnership”. Work with a man not fully skilled means, to his skilled mate, loss of time and earnings; and if the skilled man refuses to work with the new comer the manager is as likely as not to order him to bring in his tools and to walk off. If he does walk off, he may have to tramp the country for weeks in search of work at some other mine. A man will rather submit to injustice rather than ran that risk.

The three representative miners agreed in saying that the Federation [miners’ union] never would agree to arbitration. In whatever way the strike might come to an end, it would not be by arbitration. “The Bishop of Wakefield is jawing away about arbitration. Let him mind his own business. How would he like if we arbitrated about his wages? Would he wipe away a tear with the corner of his apron, or would he flare up like any other sinner? I wish the Bishop had to depend on me for his wages. I should see to it that he got something more useful to do than to arbitrate about other people’s wages. If I am only worth 26s a week (when I can get it), is the Bishop of Wakefield worth all them thousands a year? I say no man in England is worth a thousand a year. I don’t care who he is, but he is not, and he can’t be worth a thousand a year if we miners are worth no more than what we get.” Who will dare deny that the miner who spoke in this way was right? They are religious men, these three representative miners but I fear they have a poor opinion of the Episcopal Bench. “The bishops are a useless lot. Their faces don’t get worn as ours do from poverty. I don’t want to starve ‘em but I’d like to knock 40 per cent off their pay.”

Wrenthorpe Colliery 3: miners’ gift to pit owner

Here’s a strange piece of news. Is this a one-off example of miners giving their boss a gift as an act of genuine affection? Or are they really motivated by fear for their futures?

Yorkshire Evening Post
Thursday 20 April 1893

PRESENTATION TO A WAKEFIELD COAL OWNER

The miners employed at Wrenthorpe Colliery, near Wakefield, were thrown out of work for a considerable period during the latter half of 1892 by the stoppage the pit for repairs. Mr W T Marriott, of Sandal Grange, owner of the colliery, behaved in a particularly generous manner towards the men during the time they were unable work, and the latter have determined to acknowledge in a tangible manner the kindness of their employer. A subscription list was opened, and as a result a handsomely-chased solid silver waiter [tray] and an illuminated address will shortly be presented to Mr Marriott.

Little did the miners know but they were about to get kicked in the teeth, and by that summer they’d be on strike.

 

Wrenthorpe Colliery 2: air-vent explosion kills two

Two very different reports of an early pit accident at the colliery, in 1844, starting with the Evening Mail’s account.

London Evening Mail
Monday 21 October 1844

ANOTHER FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION

On Wednesday night last an explosion took place in the colliery of Messrs Micklethwaite and Co, near Wakefield, at which time three men were at work in the pit. Two of the men were killed by the explosion; and when their bodies were brought to the bank they presented a horrible picture, the flesh on their arms and faces being literally burnt to a cinder. The names of the two men who were suddenly called out of time into eternity are James Brown, a married man, of Westgate Common, and George Powell, unmarried, of Potovens, near Wakefield. Not only were two lives lost, but the coals in the pit were ignited, and remained burning at the time this account was sent off. On Thursday an inquest was held on the bodies, at the Vine Tree Inn, Newton, before Mr T Lee, coroner, when a long and patient investigation was gone into. The facts of the case may be gleaned from the following evidence adduced:

Francis Jagger sworn and said – l am both a miner and sinker; I know the deceased James Brown and George Powell; I am now sinking a pit for Messrs Micklethwaite; I was near the place where the accident occurred about 9 o’clock last night; a lad in the pit came and rang at the rod to let us know; I thought I had heard the explosion about half an hour before; there were but three persons in the pit; as soon as we heard the ringing, we went to the pit and pulled the lad up; he told us what had happened; one of the partners (Mr Carter), and his son, and myself, all went down the pit. We found the deceased men about 150 yards from the pit’s eye; they were both dead and stretched out straight. They appeared to have been suffocated. They were burnt upon their arms and face. They were employed in repairing the air-gate. I have worked in the pit, and consider the ventilation good at present without repairing. They had three lamps in use, two of which we found, but the third, belonging to Powell, is missing; we think he had taken the top off the lamp, which caused the explosion. The coal at the present time is still on fire in the pit. It is necessary that great caution should be exercised in working the air-gate, it is more dangerous than other parts of the pit. Mr Carter manages the workings at the bottom of the pit, and every attention is paid to the ventilation.

Brown was 29 years old, and Powell 19; they both lay on their faces quite dead when found. George Bedford deposed, that when he came out of the pit, about 2 o’clock in the afternoon, the ventilation was good. He had been working in the same air-gate. The jury returned a verdict of “Accidentally killed in a coal pit”.

How can the Northern Star and Advertiser’s commentary be so different? Not least, one of the two papers can’t even get the correct names of the two dead men.

Northern Star and Leeds General Advertiser
Saturday 19 October 1844

COLLIERY EXPLOSION, NEAR WAKEFIELD – TWO LIVES LOST

On Wednesday night, about nine o’clock, the village of Newton was thrown into a great state of excitement, an alarm being given that the pit belonging to Messrs Micklethwaite and Co had fired, and that four men were at work at the time. Mr Carter, and his son William, the bottom steward, were speedily in attendance, and descended the shaft in the hope of rendering assistance to the poor sufferers. Providentially, however, the cupola man and a boy, who were at work near to the other two men, had made their way to the pit’s eye, and were with the greatest dispatch landed on the surface. The man had not sustained the least injury, but the boy was much burnt about the knees, having also received a severe cut in the forehead. After Carter and his son had remained some length of time, two other men also descended, and at five minutes to ten o’clock one of the men returned, but without any tidings of the unfortunate sufferers. He, however, again descended, taking with him the necessary articles required to enable them to continue the search, which lasted until a quarter past eleven o’clock, when the two Carters ascended the shaft in a complete state of exhaustion, bringing the melancholy tidings that the two men were found, and both dead. The other two men were also brought to the top equally exhausted, when after administering some restorative, they began to recruit their strength, and prepare for a second descent to bring out the sufferers. A little after one o’clock, the bodies were brought up, and a truly horrible picture was presented to view, the flesh on their arms and faces being literally burnt to a cinder, the skin hanging about them like so many rags; they were immediately laid upon stretchers, and conveyed to the adjoining Inn. No particulars have as yet transpired as to how the explosion originated, but it is to be feared that the inflammable air must have ignited at the lamp of one of the sufferers, the same not having yet been found. The other two lamps are in a perfect state. The names of the sufferers are John Whiteley, a lad, residing at Bragg Lane, and severely burnt; James Brown, Westgate Common, a married man, aged about thirty, dead and George Wild, of Potovens, aged seventeen, also dead. Brown has left a wife and one child to mourn his untimely end. At the inquest held on Thursday, a verdict of “Accidentally killed in a coal pit” was returned.

Wrenthorpe Colliery War Memorial unveiled

Sheffield Daily Telegraph
Monday 4 April 1921

WAR MEMORIAL TO WAKEFIELD MINERS

A memorial to men of the Wrenthorpe Colliery who fell in the Great War, erected in St John’s Churchyard, Wakefield, was unveiled on Saturday by Lieutenant-Colonel H S Kaye, Officer Commanding the 4th Battalion King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. There was a large gathering of workers from the colliery, and relatives.

Previous to the unveiling ceremony a service was held in the church, and the Bishop of Wakefield (Dr G R Eden) delivered an address. The memorial, which has been erected by the owners and workpeople of the colliery, is in the form of an octagon pillar in granite, surmounted by a Geneva cross. It bears the names of nearly 100 men from the Wrenthorpe Colliery who fell.

Wrenthorpe Colliery 1: getting their seams straight

The first on a series of ten posts on what was to be the largest colliery in Wrenthorpe (although strictly speaking it was at Newton Bar). First opened in 1838, it was generally known as Newton Pit but formally called ‘Wrenthorpe Colliery’ by the time it was under the ownership of W T Marriott later on in the 19th century.

As we’ll read later on, industrial relations were particularly fraught at this pit but let’s start with the earliest reference to it in the press, the a 30-word piece on the application to sink the pit.

Leeds Intelligencer
Saturday 3 March 1838

NEW COAL PITS

Daniel Micklethwaite, Esq has purchased the coal on the estate of George Lane Fox, Esq, MP, at Newton, near Wakefield, and will commence to work it as soon as circumstances will permit.

A lengthy piece in the Leeds Mercury on the proceedings of the West Riding Geographical and Polytechnic Society from the end of the following year, throws some light on the early history of the mine. Presentations included ‘On steam engines boilers and chimneys’, ‘On the [miners’] safety lamp’ and The northern coal field of Yorkshire’.

Leeds Mercury
Saturday 14 December 1839

GEOLOGICAL AND POLYTECHNIC SOCIETY OF THE WEST RIDING OF YORKSHIRE

We mentioned last week, that the Quarterly Meeting of “the Geological and Polytechnic Society of the West Riding of Yorkshire” had been held on the previous Thursday, in the Hall of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society…

The northern coal field of Yorkshire

Mr Embleton next read his paper, Illustrated by sections – “On the Order of the Coal Seams in the Northern Coal Field of Yorkshire”. The subject of discussion on this paper was continued to a consideration of the order of the various seams found in the Townships of Whitwood, Methley, Stanley, Wrenthorpe, Lofthouse, Rothwell, Ardsley Middleton, and Beeston. Mr Embleton commenced his paper by saying it would be of great importance to the Society if the order of the seams of coal were determined in each district, and that it was the only sure foundation for comparison with distant parts of the coal field. He remarked that it was only by a careful collection of shaft sections that many important questions in local geology could be satisfactorily cleared up. As for Instance, the thinning or thickening of certain seams in particular directions, the existence of seams at one colliery which were not found in an adjoining one, the origin of coal itself. They would also show when that variety of coal called cannel coal, was chiefly found, and whether, as had been often stated, though, perhaps, without much foundation, it was only found in the vicinity of certain throws.

The workable seams in the townships before mentioned, are the Stanley Shale Coal, the Stanley Main Coal, the Warren House Coal, the Lofthouse or Haigh Moor Coal, the Fish Coal, the 40 Yards Coal, the Yard Coal or Little Coal, and the Main or Deep Coal of the Rothwell Haigh and Middleton Collieries, the Eleven Yards Coal, and the Beeston Coal. Of these seams, the 40 Yards Coal, the Yard Coal, the Main Coal, and Beeston Coal supply Leeds with fuel, both for domestic and for manufacturing purposes… The Stanley seams, as occupying the highest positions in the district, were first minutely described. These seams are worked at Hatfield Colliery, Auchthorpe Colliery, and the Victoria Colliery; the seams are usually 17 yards apart; the upper-seam is 2ft. 6in. thick, the under one very variable, and composed of three or more beds separated by argillaceous bands. The next section was at Whitwood, east of Stanley. The strata here were compared with those at Stanley, and the similarity fully established; but there was here another deeper bed. At Wrenthorpe the sinking of the shaft was commenced just at the outbreak of the Stanley Main Coal, and continued to a depth of 185 yards. This shaft passed through the Whitwood Lower Coal, and also the Haigh Moor Coal. By the Newmarket section, the Lofthouse Coal was proved to be the same as td the Haigh Moor and that the lower seam at Whitwood, the middle seam at Wrenthorpe, and the Warren House Coal at Newmarket were also identical…

Anti-pollution fines over 100 years ago

Leeds Mercury
Wednesday 18 March 1914

POLLUTING BALNE BECK
RIVERS BOARD ACTION AGAINST WRENTHORPE COLLIERY

At the Wakefield County Court yesterday, before his Honour Judge Greenhow, the West Riding Rivers Board brought an action against the Low Laithes Colliery Company Limited to recover penalties for alleged breach of an order made upon them on November 4th last to abstain from turning polluting effluent from their Wrenthorpe Colliery at Wakefield into the Balne Beck.

Evidence was given that on several subsequent occasions black and turbid liquid had been seen flowing from the colliery into the beck, the result of an overflow from settling tanks at the coal washer.

One the witnesses, farmer, through whose land the stream from the colliery runs, stated that the stream water was not fit for his horses to drink, and he had, therefore, to keep a tub the land full of town’s water.

For the respondents, Mr Blakley, of Dewsbury, stated that since the order two settling tanks had been constructed and four others were in course of construction. Some of the pollutions seen by the Rivers Board’s inspectors, he suggested, were the result of accident.

His Honour imposed a penalty of £100 (£50 each in respect of two days), but ordered that this should not be enforced if no further pollution occurs after the completion of the plant six weeks hence. He granted costs against the respondents.